The most famous pyramids in Egypt were built on the vast Giza plateau, not far from modern-day Cairo in Egypt.
There, thousands of years of history, spanning back to a time before the Pyramids, Temples, and Sphinx were built, remain hidden beneath the vast desert sands of Egypt.
Entire cities, temple sand pyramids have been buried beneath the sand, preserved in a natural environment for future generations to come and explore.
The entire plateau at Giza, where the pyramids, Sphinx, and temples sit, is composed of one gigantic plate of limestone dubbed by geologists as the Mokkatam Formation. Identified in ancient times as an ideal building spot, it was there were the rulers of Egypt’s fourth dynasty created some of the most intricate structures the planet has ever seen.
The structures at the Giza plateau, built during the reign of Khufu, Khafre, and Menkaure primarily, marked the golden age of ancient Egyptian Pyramidomania. These three Pharaohs would go on and erect massive, towering pyramids worthy of gods and temples and statues that would leave them forever imprinted in the history of mankind.
Civilizations and countries may change, but the pyramids will forever remain.
Over the span of three generations, the towering pyramids at Giza were constructed by Khufu, his second-reigning son Khafre, and Menkaure.
Although indeed impressive, we must give a mention to the natural geology of the land where the pyramids were positioned. According to surveys the southeastern corner of the Great Pyramid of Giza, the Pyramid of Khafre and Menkaure are intricately aligned on the great Giza diagonal that runs from around 43 degrees east of true north, nearly perpendicular to the dip of the plateau.
It is precisely this characteristic that follows the so-called strike of the Mokkaram Formation, a position perpendicular to the slope.
The builders identified this and aligned their structures based on this feature, enabling them to ensure that the base of all three pyramids was nearly the same level.
But this may not have been the only characteristic by which the builders guided their structures. The night sky and constellations are worthy of mention, and even Egyptologists agree that both religious and cosmic impulses beyond our current understanding may have plaid a crucial role with the ancient surveyors.
Therefore, it is very likely that the ancient surveyors took into consideration the natural geological features of the plateau when positioning the pyramids, but also religious and cosmic characteristics beyond our current understanding. A discovery at the Great Pyramid shows that unlike any previous structures, cardinality was of great importance to the architect of the Great Pyramid.
Evidence of this are the sides of the Great Pyramid which have been found to be oriented almost perfectly towards true north, with the greatest deviation being under 5′, meaning that the surveyors, designer, and architect went through a painstaking process to align the pyramids.
Furthermore, evidence of unprecedented alignment is seen when we observe the remaining structures at the Giza plateau. The west side of the Pyramid of Khufu and the Pyramid of Khafre is close to alignment with the fronts of the pyramid temples of Khafre and Menkaure. The south side of the Pyramid of Khafre has been observed to be aligned with the southern wall of the Sphinx Temple.
It is additionally interesting to note that the three pyramids of the Giza plateau seemed to be aligned and inspired by the three main stars of the Constellation of Orion, which the ancient Egyptian saw as a symbol o Osiris.
“It is said that the stone [used in the construction of the Pyramids of Giza] was conveyed over a great distance … and that the construction was effected by means of mounds … The most remarkable thing is that, though the constructions were on such a great scale and the country round about them consists of nothing but sand, not a trace remains either of any mound or of the dressing of the stones, so that they do not have the appearance of being the slow handiwork of men but look like a sudden creation, as though they had been made by some god and set down bodily in the surrounding sand.” –Diodorus Siculus, Book I, first century BC.
Impossible Engineering and knowledge
While the Great Pyramid of Giza, as well as the Pyramids of Khafre and Menkaure, are testimonies of ancient architectural ingenuity, evidence of precious engineering and architecture can be found by taking a look at the Valley and Sphinx Temple, in front of the Sphinx.
Since time immemorial, this megalithic architectural complex has seen generations of kings come and go, wars waged, and people change. And despite its extreme antiquity, the vestiges of ancient civilization are embedded within the structures.
Of the two temples, the valley temple is the larger building, while the Sphinx temple adopts a more pronouncedly rhomboidal design. Both temples were built with huge limestone blocks. Both temples are thought to have been fitted, in the distant past, with outer casings of granite, pieces that are no longer attached to the temples.
Built during a time long gone, both temples are void of the roofs and lack their original ceiling beams. But the mystery behind these two temples lies within the monstrous megaliths used in their construction, some of which weight more than one hundred tons. It has been revealed that there are even greater stones, estimated to weigh at around 200 tons.
It remains a mystery as to how the ancient builders managed to lift, transport, and maneuver into position such megaliths. Compared to the pyramids at Giza, very few studies and surveys have been undertaken at the Valley and Sphinx temples, the reason why we are still in the dark when it comes to an understanding of the logistics and transportation methods of the ancient builders.
In addition to the massive blocks of stone fashioned into position for the temples not far from the pyramids, we must look back at the pyramids themselves and ask how it was possible for the ancient builders to build the pyramids. Was it really done with the help of ramps and primitive tools?
Another perplexing fact, in addition to the humongous size of some of the blocks of the ancient Egyptian pyramids, is how the ancient builders knew the value of pi (3.14)?
This was not something any civilization was supposed to have known until the ancient Greeks discovered it in the third century BC. But the architect of the Great Pyramid did it much sooner: the designed height of Khufu’s Pyramid bears the same relationship to its base perimeter, as does the circumference of any circle to its radius. The height of the Great Pyramid: 481.3949 feet, the base perimeter: 3023.16 feet.
481.3949 feet x 2 x 3.14 = 3023.16 feet.
Another enigma is the “how” the ancient Egyptians knew about the true shape and size of Earth. The relationship that exists between the Pyramid and the Earth is unsettling for some: Taking the Great Pyramid’s height, and multiplying it by 43.200, you obtain 3938.685 miles, which is short of just 11 miles of the actual measurements for the polar radius of our planet.
Taking the perimeter at the base of the Pyramid, and multiplying it by 43,200 we get 24,734.94 miles—a result short of 170 miles of the true equatorial circumference of our planet.
The mystery behind the Great Pyramid’s Subterranean Chamber
One of the greatest mysteries concerning the Great Pyramid of Giza is a mysterious, unfinished chamber carved into the very bedrock of the Giza plateau, above which the Pyramid stands.
In fact, the entire inside of Khufu’s Pyramid was a surprise to experts who gradually explored the structure. Its interior is evidence of unique pyramid evolution, and its design and construction is remarkable in the history of architecture.
From the Pyramid’s original entrance, the descending passage leads down through the massive stone-made structure and into the subterranean chamber. Just as seen in previous examples of pyramids, this was the classic pyramid substructure, a corridor leading towards a classic chamber at or below ground level.
But this chamber is puzzling on its own. One of the small rough passages leading south from one corner is a real enigma. Only one person could have fitted at the end of it, leaning forward with a primitive hammer and chisel, not knowing where he was going. If the subterranean chamber really does lead into another room, then it means that the underground strcutre was not intended as a possible burial chamber, since the king’s burial chamber is the last room.
The Pyramid has at least two known chambers above ground; the King’s Chamber and the Queen’s Chamber. What exactly was the purpose of the subterranean chamber then?
Curiously, a scientific study in 2018 demonstrated that the Great Pyramid of Giza concentrates electromagnetic energy, which accumulates precisely in the subterranean chamber. Scientists say that the builders of the Pyramid were unaware of this fact.
Do you think we need to reevaluate what we know about ancient Egyptian pyramids?