A view of the Earth and the Moon

Are Earth’s Electrons Helping Form Water on the Moon?

Earth's energetic electrons might just be the missing piece in the lunar water puzzle.


Researchers from the University of Hawai’i (UH) at Mānoa recently revealed that electrons from Earth might play an unexpected role in creating water on the moon. This groundbreaking study, published in Nature Astronomy, not only advances our understanding of lunar evolution but might also open doors for future human explorations.

The presence of water on the moon is more than just a scientific curiosity—it holds keys to understanding the moon’s history and formation. Moreover, potential lunar water reserves could become invaluable resources for human missions to the moon and beyond. Among the most intriguing finds in this domain is the water ice in the moon’s constantly dark regions. But the question remains: where did this water originate?

The Role of Earth’s Magnetosphere

Protecting Earth from the sun’s harmful radiation and space weathering, the planet’s magnetosphere is a dynamic force field shaped by the solar wind. Within this stretched tail of the magnetosphere lies the plasma sheet, rich in high-energy electrons potentially originating from both Earth and the sun’s winds.

Historically, the focus remained on how high energy ions, especially from the solar wind, affected the moon and its potential water formation. The general belief was that the lunar surface’s exposure to the solar wind, teeming with high-energy particles, was the primary path to lunar water formation.


An Unexpected Discovery

However, Shuai Li, from the UH Mānoa School of Ocean and Earth Science and Technology (SOEST), unveiled something astonishing. While previously establishing that Earth’s magnetotail oxygen contributes to the moon’s polar rusting, Li decided to delve deeper. He explored how the moon’s journey through the Earth’s magnetotail, which largely shields it from the solar wind but not sunlight, influences surface weathering.

Li explained, “When the moon is outside of the magnetotail, it faces the full force of the solar wind. Within the magnetotail, water formation was presumed to plummet.” But using data from the Chandrayaan 1 mission’s moon Mineralogy Mapper instrument, Li and his team found that water formation remained consistent, regardless of the moon’s position.

This discovery hints at other unknown water formation processes or sources, with high-energy electron radiation emerging as a potential player akin to solar wind protons. Li poignantly remarked, “The ties between Earth and its moon are deeper and more mysterious than previously realized.”


With this discovery in hand, the next step is direct observation. Li hopes to collaborate with NASA’s Artemis programs, aiming to study the lunar environment and its water content while the moon navigates through Earth’s magnetotail.

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Written by Ivan Petricevic

I've been writing passionately about ancient civilizations, history, alien life, and various other subjects for more than eight years. You may have seen me appear on Discovery Channel's What On Earth series, History Channel's Ancient Aliens, and Gaia's Ancient Civilizations among others.

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