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DART’s Impact on Dimorphos: A Second Glance into the Aftermath

An artistic illustration showing the DART impact. ESO M. Kornmesser.

The DART mission's success marks a significant milestone in the development of planetary defense systems.

Astronomers utilized the Very Large Telescope (VLT) to observe the consequences of NASA’s DART spacecraft’s collision with asteroid Dimorphos. The controlled impact on September 26, 2022, 11 million kilometers from Earth, allowed scientists to study the asteroid’s composition and gain insights into the formation of our solar system. ESO’s VLT telescopes in Chile were among the numerous telescopes observing the event.


One team, led by Cyrielle Opitom, used the Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (MUSE) instrument to follow the debris cloud’s evolution for a month. They discovered that the ejected cloud was bluer than the asteroid itself, indicating it might be made of fine particles. The debris cloud evolved into structures like cumulus clouds, spirals, and a long tail pushed by solar radiation. MUSE also allowed the team to search for chemical signatures of different gases but found no traces of water or DART spacecraft fuel.


Another team, led by Stefano Bagnulo, used the FOcal Reducer/Low dispersion Spectrograph 2 (FORS2) instrument to study how the DART impact changed the asteroid’s surface. They found that the polarization level decreased, while the overall brightness increased after the impact. This could indicate that the impact exposed more pristine material inside the asteroid or that it destroyed surface particles, leading to smaller fragments in the debris cloud.

Remarkable capabilities of the VLT

The studies showcase the remarkable capabilities of the VLT when multiple instruments collaborate to investigate celestial phenomena. By using different instruments in tandem, researchers are able to delve deeper into the complexities of asteroid composition and behavior. The data obtained from these collaborative efforts is not only extremely valuable for understanding the nature of asteroids but also serves as a stepping stone for future research and technological advancements in the field of astronomy.

DART success

The DART mission’s success marks a significant milestone in the development of planetary defense systems. By demonstrating the feasibility of altering an asteroid’s trajectory through controlled impact, it provides a strong foundation for future efforts to deflect or destroy potentially hazardous celestial objects. The ability to protect our planet from large asteroids that could cause catastrophic damage to cities or even threaten the survival of entire populations is of utmost importance. Developing effective asteroid deflection or destruction systems will ensure the safety of humanity and the preservation of Earth’s ecosystems. By building on the knowledge gained from the DART mission and leveraging the observational capabilities of facilities like the VLT, we can continue to advance our understanding of asteroids and develop more sophisticated methods for protecting our planet from potential threats.

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