In a historical scientific breakthrough, researchers from the University of Bristol and the Technical University of Denmark have published a new study in which they claim to have sent information from one chip to another instantly, without physical or electronic connection in between, thanks to quantum teleportation.
The new achievement opens many technological doors including quantum computers as well as the quantum internet.
The recent teleportation of information was achieved thanks to a phenomenon described as quantum entanglement. In this state, two pairs are so entwined with one another they are able to communicate over extremely long, spooky distances. In this state, the change of properties in one particle causes the instant change of the second particle.
The best part is, say scientists, there are no indications to a theoretical limit in the distance across which quantum teleportation can operate. This state is what Albert Einstein described as a “spooky action at a distance.”
One troubling matter, which particularly stressed Einstein is that with our current knowledge of physics, nothing should be able to travel faster than the speed of lime. Quantum teleportation breaks known physics as it seems to break the said speed limit.
This quantum entanglement cannot be explained by means of traditional physics, which is why scientists have spent decades analyzing this remarkable capacity of particles.
If scientists manage to control quantum teleportation, it would enable us to create advanced quantum computers.
“We were able to demonstrate a high-quality entanglement link across two chips in the lab, where photons on either chip share a single quantum state,” explained Dan Llewellyn, co-author of the study published in Nature Physics.
The researchers programmed each of the chips to perform a range of demonstrations that utilize entanglement; the two-chip teleportation experiment saw the individual quantum state of each particle transmitted across both chips.
“Based on our previous result of on-chip high-quality single-photon sources, we have built an even more complex circuit containing four sources. All of these sources are tested and found to be nearly identical emitting nearly identical photons, which is an essential criterion for the set of experiments we had performed, such as entanglement swapping,” explained Dr. Imad Faruque from the University of Bristol in a statement.
Through the study, the scientists demonstrated extremely high-fidelity quantum teleportation of 91 percent. The study, say experts, further demonstrated important functionality of their designs like entanglement swapping as well as four-photon GHZ states.
Entanglement swapping is needed for quantum repeaters and quantum networks while four-photon GHZ states are required in both quantum computing and the quantum internet.