An alien holding the earth

The Apex of Advanced Life: A Phenomenon of Billions of Years Past

New research suggests that we are latecomers in the cosmic theatre.


We, as developed lifeforms, could potentially be remnants from an erstwhile era in the cosmos. A groundbreaking study concentrating on black holes and their consequential impact on stellar birth proposes an intriguing possibility – advanced life forms like us could be remnants of a bygone cosmic epoch.

Interstellar Insights by Astrophysics Scholar David Garofalo

David Garofalo, a respected physics lecturer at Kennesaw State University in Georgia, has presented new research. He delves into black holes’ physics and their potential influence on advanced life’s existence. “By linking black holes with star creation, we can trace back to when and where extra-terrestrial intelligences were most likely to have evolved,” Garofalo elucidates.

Advanced Life: The Drake Equation Expanded

The Drake Equation, a probabilistic formula aimed at estimating intelligent civilizations within our Milky Way, often guides our thoughts on this subject. Garofalo ambitiously expands its scope, reaching out into the vast and age-old universe. The question arises: where do we start?

The Interplay of Black Holes and Star Formation

Garofalo embarks on this journey by investigating black holes, feedback mechanisms, and star formation. “We’ve progressed significantly in comprehending how and where peak star formation occurs in the universe. It’s time to broaden our exploration of cosmic intelligence,” he contends.


The Cosmic Cradle of Advanced Life Forms

According to Garofalo, advanced civilizations may have flourished when black hole mergers and the prevalence of field-isolated galaxies resulted in an increase in stars and planets. This, in turn, offered fertile grounds for life and evolution.

The Timeframe of Advanced Life Evolution 

He elucidates, “Counter-rotating black hole accretion occurs during mergers, peaking at a redshift of 2.” This redshift, equating to approximately 11 billion years ago, was a time when active galactic nuclei and their jets nurtured a cosmic cradle. With Earth forming 4.5 billion years ago, advanced life, as we know it, came into existence 4.5 billion years after these conducive black hole conditions.

Factoring in Metallicity and Galaxy Types

Garofalo suggests that even though metallicity was lower 6 billion years ago, it wouldn’t hinder the emergence of advanced life. He emphasizes the role of isolated elliptical galaxies, not the conventional red ones, but a specific category that don’t exhibit low metallicities due to their interaction with abundant cold gas from merged disk-like galaxies.

Rethinking the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI)

Garofalo’s theory, if validated, could revolutionize our Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence (SETI) strategies. “Given the speculated timeframes and locations for extraterrestrial intelligence, SETI hunts should focus on signals from Kardashev Type III civilizations,” he concludes. This type of civilization harnesses all its galaxy’s emitted energy.


Echoes of the Universe’s Golden Epoch?

In conclusion, Garofalo’s research suggests that we are relatively newcomers in the cosmic timeline. “Our analysis hints at a peak era of technologically advanced life in the universe being in the past,” he states. “We’re latecomers on Earth.” However, we might not be the only tardy guests. There could be other lifeforms out there who, like us, are just now joining the cosmic party.

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Written by Ivan Petricevic

I've been writing passionately about ancient civilizations, history, alien life, and various other subjects for more than eight years. You may have seen me appear on Discovery Channel's What On Earth series, History Channel's Ancient Aliens, and Gaia's Ancient Civilizations among others.

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