Illustration of a supermassive black hole

The Cosmic Search for Early Supermassive Black Holes

Unlocking the mystery of supermassive black holes and their emergence during the universe's formative years.


In the vast expanse of our universe, the presence of supermassive black holes, giants with masses over a million times that of our sun, remains a compelling enigma. Their ubiquitous presence today invites a deeper dive into the tapestry of our 13.8 billion-year-old cosmic narrative.

Galaxy Heartbeats: Black Holes and Their Cosmic Dance

Every galaxy is believed to cradle a supermassive black hole at its core. Intriguingly, these gargantuan entities have a mass that’s typically a thousandth of their host galaxy. Such a consistent relationship hints at an intertwined evolution between galaxies and their central black holes. Understanding these black holes is pivotal, not just for their own mysteries but also for shedding light on the formation of galaxies, the primary building blocks of our observable universe.


A Glimpse Back in Time: The Early Universe’s Secrets

Venturing into the early universe, a period less than a billion years post the Big Bang, could offer clues to the genesis of these black holes. The finite speed of light allows us a nostalgic gaze into the universe’s distant past. Could black holes of such mammoth proportions have formed when the universe was merely a billion years young? And if they did, what cosmic recipes led to their creation?


Hawaii’s Eye in the Sky: Subaru Telescope’s Revelations

Our recent observations utilized the Subaru Telescope in Maunakea, Hawaii. With its advantageous widefield vision, it’s a potent tool for this cosmic quest. As these black holes remain elusive to direct light, we hunted for quasars, their radiant counterparts. Spanning a sky expanse 5,000 times that of the full moon, our search was fruitful—we discovered 162 quasars from the universe’s infancy. A remarkable 22 of these existed when the universe was under 800 million years old, marking the oldest quasars known.

From this bounty, we determined a key metric—the “luminosity function.” This highlights quasars’ density in relation to their emitted radiation. Our data suggests that quasars proliferated rapidly during the universe’s early days. This discovery challenges current theoretical models, nudging them closer to explaining the birth of supermassive black holes.

The Puzzle of Cosmic Reionization

In another intriguing twist, our universe underwent a significant shift called “cosmic reionization” early on. It’s believed that during this phase, the vast interstellar expanse underwent ionization. While quasars are speculated as potential energy sources for this ionization, our studies propose otherwise. Quasars seemingly contributed minimally, making up less than 1% of the requisite ionizing photons. This gap points to alternative energy contributors, possibly the radiant emissions from colossal stars within burgeoning galaxies.


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Written by Justin Gurkinic

Hey, my name is Justin, and my friends call me Gurk. Why? Becuase of my last name. It sounds like a vegetable. Kind of. I love sleeping and writing. History is my thing.

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